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2014全国硕士研究生统一考试英语(二)真题及其参考答案

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   Section I  Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health。

  Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI  ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese。

  While such numerical standards seem  9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10  others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players  12  as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a  13   BMI。

  Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools。

  1. [A] denied        [B] conduced        [C] doubled        [D] ensured

  2. [A] protective    [B] dangerous       [C] sufficient     [D]troublesome

  3. [A] Instead       [B] However         [C] Likewise       [D] Therefore

  4. [A] indicator     [B] objective       [C] origin         [D] example

  5. [A] impact        [B] relevance       [C] assistance     [D] concern

  6. [A] in terms of   [B] in case of      [C] in favor of     [D] in of

  7. [A] measures      [B] determines       [C] equals         [D] modifies

  8. [A] in essence     [B] in contrast     [C] in turn        [D] in part

  9. [A] complicated    [B] conservative    [C] variable       [D] straightforward

  10. [A] so            [B] unlike          [C] since          [D] unless

  11. [A] shape         [B] spirit          [C] balance        [D] taste

  12. [A] start         [B] quality            [C] retire             [D] stay

  13. [A] strange       [B] changeable         [C] normal             [D] constant

  14. [A] option        [B] reason             [C] opportunity        [D] tendency

  15. [A] employed      [B] pictured           [C] imitated           [D] monitored

  16. [A]               [B] combined           [C] settled            [D] associated

  17. [A] Even          [B] Still              [C] Yet                [D] Only

  18. [A] despised      [B] corrected          [C] ignored            [D] grounded

  19. [A] discussions   [B] businesses         [C] policies           [D] studies

  20. [A] for           [B] against            [C] with               [D] without

  Section II  Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton。

  These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others。

  This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession。

  Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent。

  21.According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?

  [A]A big house

  [B]A special tour

  [C]A stylish car

  [D]A rich meal

  22.The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is

  [A]critical

  [B]supportive

  [C]sympathetic

  [D]ambiguous

  23.Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that

  [A]consumers are sometimes irrational

  [B]popularity usually comes after quality

  [C]marketing tricks are after effective

  [D]rarity generally increases pleasure

  24.According to the last paragraph,Happy Money

  [A]has left much room for readers’criticism

  [B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

  [C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us

  [D]may give its readers a sense of achievement

  25.This text mainly discusses how to

  [A]balance feeling good and spending money

  [B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries

  [C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent

  [D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries

  Text 2

  An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect” or “illusory superiority” and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities。

  We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff。

  Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion” says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook  therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise,where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves。

  26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.

  [A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high

  [B] illusory superiority is baseless effect

  [C] our need for leadership is unnatural

  [D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective

  27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s______

  [A] rapid watching

  [B] conscious choice

  [C] intuitive response

  [D] automatic self-defence

  28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______

  [A] underestimate their insecurities

  [B] believe in their attractiveness

  [C] cover up their depressions

  [D] oversimplify their illusions

  29.The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.

  [A]instinctively

  [B]occasionally

  [C]particularly

  [D]aggressively

  30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradise because people can _____.

  [A]present their dishonest profiles

  [B]define their traditional life styles

  [C]share their intellectual pursuits

  [D]withhold their unflattering sides

  Text 4

  When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned。

  Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged。

  Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes。

  The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need。

  There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%。

  Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental  environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues。

  But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing ?4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s  spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate。

  36.  The author believes that the housing sector__

  [A] has attracted much attention

  [B] involves certain political factors

  [C] shoulders too much responsibility

  [D] has lost its real value in economy

  37.  It can be learned that affordable housing has__

  [A] increased its home supply

  [B] offered spending opportunities

  [C] suffered government biases

  [D] disappointed the government

  38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may_______。

  [A] allow greater government debt for housing

  [B] stop local authorities from building homes

  [C] prepare to reduce housing stock debt

  [D] release a lifted GDP growth forecast

  39.It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______.

  [A]lower the costs of registered providers

  [B]lessen the impact of government interference

  [C]contribute to funding new developments

  [D]relieve the ministers of responsibilities

  40.The author believes that after 2015,the government may______.

  [A]implement more policies to support housing

  [B]review the need for large-scale public grants

  [C]renew the affordable housing grants programme

  [D]stop generous funding to the housing sector

  Section III  Translation

  Directions:

  Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

  Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half fall. But that’s exactly the kind of false deerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimists means being in touch with reality。” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor, According to Ben- Shalar,realistic optimists are these who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best。

  Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercisers. When he feels down-sag, after giving a bad lecture-he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that mot every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction, He analyzes the weak lecture, leaning lessons, for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there is perspective, which involves acknowledging that in the ground scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter。

  Section IV  Writing

  Part A

  47.Directions: Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student. Write him to email to

  1)tell him about your living habits, and

  2)ask for advice about living there。

  You should write about 100 words on answer sheet。

  Do not use your own name。

  Part B

  48. Directions:

  Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  You should

  1. interpret the chart, and

  2. give your comments。

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)

U6360P352DT20140105113130修改.gif

  Section I  Use of English

  1、‐答案/B concluded

  ‐解析/ 题干?#26657;?#19968;系列的研究已经_____事实上正常体重的人的患病风险要高于超重的人。根据句义后面的部分?#23548;?#19978;是研究的结论因此concluded符合题意其他选项denied(否认)与意义相反doubled(翻倍)与题意较远ensured(确保)不符合题意因为研究不能确保后面的事实只能得出后面的事实作为结论。所以正确答案为B。

  2、‐答案/A protective

  ‐解析/ 题干?#26657;?#23545;于某些健康情况超重事实上是有_____。根据前文研究的结论超重能减少罹患疾病的风险?#24471;?#36229;重具有一定的保护作用。Dangerous和文章意思相反sufficient表示充足troublesome表示有麻?#24120;?#19981;符合题意所以正确答案为A。

  3、‐答案/C likewise

  ‐解析?#24247;?#19977;句话?#26657;?#36739;重的女人患缺?#39057;?#27604;例低于较瘦的女人。_____在老年人?#26657;?#19968;定程度上超重……。需要填入的是和前半句表示顺接的词语。A选项instead表示逆接的句意关系B选项however也表示逆接D选项therefore表示因此只有C选项likewise意为同样地也而且。因此正确答案为C。

  4、‐答案/A indicator

  ‐解析/本句话?#26657;_____一定程度上超重经常是健康的_____。A选项表示指示器指标。B选项objective表?#31350;?#35266;C选项origin表示来源D选项example表示例子。根据前面的文章内容已经明?#20998;?#20986;超重代表了健康因此超重是健康的指标。因此正确答案为A。

  5、‐答案/D concern

  ‐解析/本句话的句意是需要更加_____是很?#35759;?#32933;胖加?#36828;?#20041;。A、impact(印象)B、relevance(相关性)C、assistance(辅助)D、concern(关注)。前文已经说到肥胖事实上有利健康但是?#32622;?#20020;一个问题到底如何去定义肥胖因此需要更加关注的是对肥的定义其他选项均不符合题意所以正确答案为D。

  6、‐答案/A in terms of

  ‐解析/题干?#26657;?#32933;胖经常______体质指数或称为BMI来定义。A、in terms of 根据……就……而言。B、In case of 表示在某种情况下 C、in favor of 表示赞成以……来取代D、in respect of关于……。因此正确答案为A。在医学研究和临床测试中经常使用BMI作为衡量受试者健康的重要指标希望考生能?#24739;?#20303;这一背景知识方便日后做题。

  7、‐答案/C equals

  ‐解析/本题题干中BMI_____体重除以身高的平方这里是用文?#20013;?#36848;了BMI指数得出的方法也就是一个数学公式所以equal符合题意。A measure(测量)、B determine表示确定D modify(修订)。句义就是BMI等于体重除以身高的平?#20581;?/p>

  8、‐答案/C in turn

  ‐解析/本题题干?#26657;?#32933;胖_____能够分成中?#30830;?#32982;、重?#30830;?#32982;和极?#30830;?#32982;。A、in essence(事实上、?#23548;?#19978;) B、in contrast (相反地)C、in turn(?#26469;? D、in part (部分地)。本句是将肥胖?#26469;?#20998;级所以正确答案为C。

  9、‐答案/D straightforward

  ‐解析/题干?#26657;?#30456;比之下这样的数?#30452;?#20934;看起来_____?#23548;?#19978;不是的。A、complicated (复杂)B、conservative(保守)、C、variable(可变的)D、straightforward(直截了当)这里的数?#30452;?#20934;指的就是肥胖指数肥胖指数分为三类而且算法比较简单所以A复杂不正确B选项保守用于描述一种数学公式不恰当一名患者或一名受试者的BMI一般是确定的因此可变的也不符合题意D选项straightforward表示直截了当符合题意因此正确答案为D。

  10、‐答案/B while

  ‐解析/本句?#26657;?#19968;些人有很高的BMI?#23548;?#19978;身材正好_____其他人有?#31995;?#30340;BMI指数可能_____。从前半句我们可以看出有些人的BMI指数很高应该属于体重肥胖的人事实上身材正好这里?#24471;?#30340;是反常的现象后半句是其他人的BMI指数?#31995;停?#32780;_____较差。A、so(所以)B、while(而)C、since(因为)D、unless(除非)四个选项中只有while有转折的含义其他选项均不符合题意所以正确答案为B。

  11、‐答案/A shape

  ‐解析/本题可以简化为Some … are fit, while others … may be in poor       。不难看出前后意义相反且fit(体型健康)与in poor       对应与之最相关是A shape(外形)故为正确答案。“精神”、“均衡”、“品味”都相差比较远可以排除。

  12、‐答案/B qualify

  ‐解析/本题顺应前文意义有一些人体型很好有些人体型体?#22836;?#32982;。接下来举例说有些专业足球?#30805;?#21592;       是肥胖的“开始”不符“处在”也不符合句意“退休”内容无关“被认为”符合句意正确。

  13、‐答案/C normal

  ‐解析/本句不难理解有些人脂肪过高但是BMI却      。所需词汇明显是正向的排除A、BD属中性且不符合句意C(正常的)契合为正确答案。

  14、‐答案/D tendency

  ‐解析/本题解题关键是后半句to stigmatize obesity(?#21482;?#32933;胖)作为划线部分的后置定语将四个选项“选择”“理由”“机会”“倾向”代入划线处最符合句意的是D(倾向)。后面一句也进一步证实了(出现在媒体中的肥胖者脸?#38469;?#25171;了马赛马的)。

  15、‐答案/C pictured

  ‐解析/空格所在句提到了媒体根据语?#24120;?#19978;句讲到当今我们都污蔑肥胖所以本句的意思应该是媒体污蔑肥胖四个选项?#26657;?#36319;媒体相关系的词汇只有C picture 意思为刻画描写描述。

  16、‐答案/D associated

  ‐解析/空格所在句的意思是与肥胖_____的原型包括懒惰缺乏意志力对成功的期望值不高。空格后面提到的懒惰缺乏意志力和对成功的期望值不高?#38469;?#19982;肥胖相关的表现分析四个选项A. 与。。。相比B 与。。。相结合C. 和。。。和解都不符合题意只有D与。。。相联系相关符合句意。

  17、‐答案/A even

  ‐解析/空格所在句的意思是_____小孩?#29992;?#35270;超重而且对身材的嘲笑一直是学校的一个问题。?#31350;?#26684;缺少一个副词根据语境?#19988;?#24120;识此处应该填入表示让步关系的词汇分析四个选项只有A even ?#35789;?#31526;合题意。

  18、‐答案/D grounded

  ‐解析/根据语?#24120;?#31354;前讲到对肥胖的负面态度空后讲到对健康的关注

  激发一批反肥胖的____。本句没有出现任何转折词?#24471;?#31354;前后所表达的意思是一致的反对肥胖是基于对健康的关注分析四个选项能够表达此意思的词汇只有选项D grounded,意思是基于。

  19、‐答案/D policies

  ‐解析/解答此题需要联系空格后面紧跟着的句子。空后的句子出现了一系列表示同一个语义场的词汇比如 hospital system ; ban; many employers institute, 指向的意思是一个系统?#20852;?#20986;台的政策的问题浏览四个选项D选项policies 符合题意直接入选。

  20、‐答案/B against

  ‐解析/本段的主题是反对肥胖本句话属于细节的句子用来支持这个主题空格所在句讲到米歇尔奥巴马已经发起了一个高知名度的_____儿童肥胖甚至告诉奥兹博士它代表了我们国家最大的安全威?#30149;?#31354;格中缺少词汇应该含有反对反抗的意思纵观四个选项只有B against 符合题意。

  Section II  Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21、‐答案/B  A special tour

  ‐解析/细节题。答案定位在第二段的“it is far better to spend money on experiences…like interesting trips…”意思是“花钱消费在经历方面更好……比如说有趣的旅行……”由此可以得知答案是B选项“一场特别的旅行”。

  22、‐答案/A  critical

  ‐解析/观点态度题。答案定位在第三段的“something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it”意思是“普通美国人一年花两个月的时间看电视并且看电视?#36127;?#19981;可能更愉快”因此可以得知作者对于看电视的态度是A选项“批判的”。

  23、‐答案/D  rarity generally increases pleasure

  ‐解析/观点例证题。答案定位在第三段文章中提到Mc Rib这个例子用这个例子证明的论点是“luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly”大意是“有节?#39057;?#28040;费奢侈品最令人愉悦”D选项正是这句论点句的同义替换。

  24、‐答案/B  may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

  ‐解析/细节题。答案定位在最后一段的最后一句“most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent”大意是“大多数人看完这本书后认为物?#20852;?#20540;”因此可以推知B选项是正确答案。

  25、‐答案/A  balance feeling good and spending money

  ‐解析/主旨题。纵观全文可知全文主要谈论花钱消费和心情愉悦之间的关系因此答案定位在A选项。

  Text 2

  26、‐答案/A  our self-ratings are unrealistically high

  ‐解析/题?#35838;?“根据第一段社会心理学家发现了什么”对应于文章第一      段第三句“社会心理学家对所谓的‘高于均数效应’或者‘虚幻的优越感’进行大量的研究发现我们中70%的人认为自己的领导力在平均水平之上……—这些数据明?#36828;际?#19981;可能的。”由此可知我们对自己评价过高。故答案为[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high。

  27、‐答案/C  intuitive response

  ‐解析/题?#35838;?ldquo;视觉识别被认为是人们的什么”对应于文章第三段第三句“视觉识别是?#36828;?#30340;心理过程这个过程依靠直觉快速发生?#20063;?#19981;是故意的。”由此可知视觉识别被认为是人们的直觉反应。故答案为[C] intuitive response。

  28、‐答案/B  believe in their attractiveness

  ‐解析/题?#35838;?ldquo;Epley发现有更高自尊的人倾向于怎样”。对应到第四段第二句讲到“没有证据显示那些自我提升最多的人这样做是为?#25628;?#39280;自己的不安全接着讲到事实上那些认为自己的形象高于吸引力标准的人就是那些表现出更高自尊的人故答案为[B] believe in their attractiveness。

  29、‐答案/[A] instinctively

  ‐解析/题?#35838;?ldquo;最接近viscerally的意思的是”。对应到第五段viscerally所在句讲到“许多人讨厌照片中的自己从某种层面上说他们甚至不承?#38505;?#29255;中的人是他们自己。”而下文又讲到facebook是自我拔高者的天堂在那里人们可以分享最满意的的照片。”由此可知viscerally在本句中是“本质?#31995;?rdquo;意思故答案为[A] instinctively。

  30、‐答案/[D]withhold their unflattering sides

  ‐解析/题干问“我们可以推理出脸书(facebook)之所以是一个自我拔高者的天堂是因为人们可以做什么”对应于文章最后一段的第二句该句讲到“在脸书(facebook)?#26657;?#20154;们可以分享最满意的照片。”下文接着讲到“不是人们不诚实而是人们展示了自己最理想的形象。”故答案为[D]withhold their unflattering sides。

  Text 4

  36、‐答案/[B] involves certain political factors

  ‐解析/根据本题题干中的关键词housing sector可?#36828;杂?#21040;文章的第二段 中间说的很多我们注意到最后有but出现最后应该是作者真正想要表达的观点另外这里用了the most significant 最高级所以最后这个是最重要的一个原因politically charged和选项B的political factors有对应关系故选B involves certain political factors。

  A项的吸引注意没有提及C项的承担太多责任原文说的shoulder the blameD项说的丧失价值原文说的是不善于表明真正价值两者不一致故排除。

  37、‐答案/[C] suffered government biases

  ‐解析/经济?#35270;?#25151;曾受到政府的偏见。答案定位到文章第三段最后一句话It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. 政府需要把历史的偏见放在一边并?#20063;?#21462;一些策略解决我们迫切的住房需求。Suffered 是过去式是对于原文history 的同义反复biases 是对原文prejudices的同义反复。

  38、‐答案/[A] allow greater government debt for housing

  ‐解析/根据人名George Osborne定位得知此人将会让当地政府用来偿还建房借贷的限额变得更加宽松并?#20197;?#20511;贷限额放宽的情况下将会另有60,000所?#35838;?#22312;未来的五年中建立并由此拉动国内生产总值的百分之零点六。因此A(允许更大的政府的建房借贷)是正确的而B(禁止当地政府建房)C(准备减少建房借贷)D(发布国内生产总值增长的预报)?#21152;?#21407;文意思不符。

  39、‐答案/[C] contribute to funding new developments

  ‐解析?#23458;?#26029;题。根据文章题干定位到第五段题干考察的是对稳定的租赁?#32938;?#30340;理解。A项的意思是“减少注册供应者的成本”其中“成本一词”并未在文中出现属于无中生有。B项的意思是“减少政府接介入的影响”其中“政府介入”并未在文中出现属于无中生有。B项的意思是“有助于为新发展提供资金支持”其中“为新发展提供资金支持”对应文中的“fund new developments”C选项中的“contribute to”(意思是有助于)对英文中的have a significant impact(意思是有重要影响)符合正解的同义复现原则所以是正?#36153;?#39033;。

  40、‐答案/[D] stop generous funding to the housing sector

  ‐解析?#23458;?#26029;题。根据题干定位到最后一段第三?#23567;?#32771;察的是2015年以后政府的可能?#36828;?#20316;。A项的意思是“推行更多的政策来支持住房”与原文意义相反。B项的意思是重新审视大规模公共拨款的需求与原文倒数第二段意义相违背。C项的意思是更新可负担的住房拨款项目并没有提到renew一词。D项的意思是停止对住房部门的大额资助与原文的倒数第二句相匹配故为正?#36153;?#39033;。

  Section III  Translation

  46、

  ‐参考译文/

  大多数人认为乐观是无尽的欢乐如同总是有半杯水的杯子。但那是一种绝不会为积极心理学家所?#39057;?#30340;虚假的快乐。哈佛大学的Tal Ben-Shahar教授说“健康的乐观主义意味着要活在现实之中。”在Ben-Shahar看来现实的乐观主义者会因势利导而非求全责备。

  Ben-Shahar 会使用三种乐观的方法。比如说当他因搞砸了一场演讲而倍感郁?#39057;?#26102;候他会告诉自己这是很正常的事提醒自己并不是每一次演讲都可以获得?#24403;?#23572;?#20445;?#24635;会有一些人的演讲效果不及其他人。接着为改进。他分析了一些效果不好的演讲并且从那些起效和无效的演讲中吸取教训为将来做准备。最后是看待问题的角度即在生活的宏伟计划?#26657;?#19968;次演讲真的无足轻重。

  Section IV  Writing

  Part A

  47.Directions:

  Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student, write him an email to

  1) tell him about your living habits, and

  2) ask for advice about living there

  Dear John,

  I am Li Ming, your future roommate and a new arrival from China who is coming over here for further education. I am writing this letter to let you know about me and ask for some suggestions for my future life in America。

  First, I am a quiet person so that your keeping silent would be highly appreciated. Second, I like cooking and I wonder whether it is okay to you that I cook Chinese dish at home, because the preparation for Chinese cuisine may produce much smoke. Third, I want to buy a car but I know nothing about traffic rules in America. Would you please give me a lesson about traffic laws in US.

  Wish you reply soon。

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  Part B

  48. Directions:

  Directions:

  Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments。

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

U6360P352DT20140105113130修改.gif

  As the bar graph indicates, both city and rural area witnessed a distinguished phenomenon in population fluctuation. Indeed, population in city increased at a breakneck speed and surpassed that of rural area during the period from 1990 to 2010 while population in rural region slightly decreased down to a scale which was close to that of city.

  What accounts for this disparity? The answer involves two factors. The first contributing factor is the substantially fast developing steps of cities in China. No one can deny that since Chinese economic reform from 1980s which mostly benefits people in city. The second  reason is that Chinese farmers enjoy the harvest from new policies that are established to benefit farmers. People in rural areas are allowed to migrate for work and residence by the law and an increasing number of farmers choose to work in city and become migrant workers just because they would make much more money than ever before in city. All these are the result of urbanization。

  Based on the analyses above, we can safely draw the conclusion that the process of urbanization will continue in the years ahead, and every single Chinese benefits from the fast development of China。

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